Essay on American Psychology And Functionalism : William James
William James (1842-1910)
William James developed a theory known as pragmatism, which is a belief that the validity of an idea is proven if that idea works and shows usefulness (Hergenhahn & Henley, 2014). He published The Principles of Psychology which reflected much of James’s perceptions of Wilhelm Wundt’s work and laid the foundation for the school of functionalism. James didn’t believe in instinctive behavior and thought that these behaviors were more of a learned pattern that develops during the lifetime (Hergenhahn & Henley, 2014).
Hugo Munsterberg (1863-1916)
Hugo Munstenberg can be seen as the creator of forensic psychology, industrial psychology and applied psychology (Hergenhahn & Henley, 2014). He was the first to add psychology principles to better industries in areas such as personnel selection, marketing and advertising, and increasing work efficiency (Hergenhahn & Henley, 2014). He urged the change of violent interrogation methods to instead using psychological principles. In applied psychology in clinical settings he applied reciprocal antagonism, which is a techniques used to strengthen the thoughts that are seen to be the opposite of the ones that may be causing the problem (Hergenhahn & Henley, 2014).
Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
Granville Stanley Hall was fascinating by the theory of evolution and he used parts of this theory when he created the development across the life span psychology field (Hergenhahn &…