Essay English Grammer

2141 Words Jan 12th, 2014 9 Pages
English Grammar A Short Guide
Graham Tulloch

This book was prepared in the English Discipline of the Flinders University of South Australia and printed by Flinders Press. ©1990 Graham Tulloch FURTHER READING This is intended as a basic and simple guide to English grammar. For a more detailed introduction with exercises see J.R. Bernard's excellent book A Short Guide to Traditional English Grammar (Sydney: Sydney University Press, l975) to which I am much indebted. For a longer study read Randolph Quirk and Sidney Greenbaum, A University Grammar of English (London: Longman, 1973) and for a very detailed, very complex (and very expensive) treatment of the subject see Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech and Jan Svartik, A
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Where one of these can alternatively be expressed by placing to before it, it is called the indirect object. For example, instead of He gave me the book we can say He gave the book to me. Here the book is the direct object and me the indirect object . COMPLEMENT 3

After the verb to be there is no object since the noun which follows refers to the same thing as that which precedes the verb (the subject). The noun following the verb to be is called the complement. Examples: I am a man. This is the question. CLAUSE There are two kinds of clauses: principal (or main) clauses, and subordinate (or dependent) clauses. Principal Clauses A group of words which includes a subject and a finite verb and makes a complete statement. Examples: I am a man. The house stands on the hill. When I come home, I will let the cat in.

The following are not principal clauses because they do not make a complete statement which can stand by itself: Which is a problem That the house is standing on the hill When I come home The house which stands on the hill Subordinate Clause A group of words which includes a finite or non-finite verb but does not make a statement which stands by itself. Examples: As soon as the Green Knight entered the room all were astounded. He said that the Green Knight was really orange. The house, which stands on the hill, is empty.

Subordinate clauses can be classified according to their function: Adverbial Clause Example: As soon as the Green Knight

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