Psychology Study Guide Chapter 1: Different types of psychologists (clinical, forensic, social, health, industrial etc) • Clinical: aim to reduce psychological distress. Anxiety, depression, relationship problems, addictions and relationships. • Forensic: applying theory to criminal investigations, understanding psychological problems associated with criminal behavior, and the treatment of criminals. • Social: The study of relations between people and groups. Thoughts, feelings and behaviors altered by others. typically explain human behavior as a result of the interaction of mental states and immediate social situations • Health: relatively new. Principles are used to help changes about people’s attitudes about health and illness.
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Auditory Nerve • The auditory pathways from the ear to the brain. Semicircular canals of the ear • Horizontal, Posterior, Superior • Each canal is filled with a fluid called endolymph and contains a motion sensor with little hairs (cilia) whose ends are embedded in a gelatinous structure called the cupula. As the skull twists in any direction, the endolymph is thrown into different sections of the canals. The cilia detect when the endolymph rushes past, and a signal is then sent to the brain. Continuity • The tendency to perceive continuous lines and patterns. Closure • The tendency to fill in the gaps when perceiving figures. Proximity • In perception, the tendency to group objects that are close to eachother. Shape, size constancy • The tendency to perceive objects as retaining their correct size and shape, regardless of their vantage point. Interposition • Objects that block off part of the view of other objects appear closer.
Linear perspective • Parallel lines appear to be closer to eachother as they recede into the distance. Chapter 4: ALL Pavlov terms: • UCS (unconditioned stimulus): Any stimulus that automatically and reliably produced a particular response, such as a reflex. • CS (conditioned stimulus): An initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a response similar to that elicited by UCS • UCR (unconditioned stimulus): The automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus. • CR (conditioned stimulus): the learned