Q1A. The question of the inevitability of social stratification is one of the fundamental bases of the theories of Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore. Davis and Moore (1945) argue that as long as there is division of labor in the society, and that there are variability in the roles with varying degrees of importance, stratification will occur. There is a significant difference in the wages of CEO’s and a minimum wage earner because according to the theory, there is a functional necessity of providing different rewards for different positions in the society in accordance to an individual’s abilities. Because not everyone is qualified for specific positions or roles set by the society, there is a need to fill them by making sure that the right
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Q2B In the points of criticism of Tulmin out against the functional theory of Davis and Moore, it was highlighted that systems of social stratification has the function to regulate the discovery of the full potential of talents available in the society. In this case, we can say that the women are not given enough opportunities as compared to their male counterparts because of the limited resources that are provided to them, which would lead the society to accept the ideology that women are certainly inferior to men. Social stratification systems serve as a tool to distribute positive self images of individual in the certain category concerned. The wage gap between male and female could be explained by Tulmin’s thesis that “Social stratification systems function to provide the elite with the political power necessary to procure acceptance and dominance of an ideology which rationalizes the status quo, whatever it may be, as "logical," "natural" and "morally right.” (Tulmin, 1953) This means that there is a prevailing status quo that has to be preserved in order for the society to function according to preference of the dominant stratum, which in this case is the male.
Q3A Karl Marx is one of the most influential political thinkers of the nineteenth century, who claimed that exploitation is an inherent characteristic of the capitalist system. If he were to look at the situation involving the CEO and the minimum wage earners, he would probably conclude that