Essay Structure Of A Chemical Substance

1483 Words Jul 10th, 2015 6 Pages
The Earth is covered by about 70% of water and naturally, water is the only material that exists in three different states (solid, liquid and gas). This highlights that water is an important component as a chemical substance and this is due to its unique properties. Structure of water is one of the main features of water that allows it to carry out its job and that determines its functions and properties.
Structure of water
Water the molecule
In a water molecule, there is one oxygen that has six valence electrons in its outer shell and acts as the central atom. Two of these electrons is shared with the two hydrogen atoms which have one valance electron each in their outer shell giving a chemical formula of H2O. This shared pair helps to fill the outermost energy shell of both atoms to achieve a noble gas configuration. A covalent compound consists of molecules and the bond is formed when electrons are shared. The remaining four electrons are now referred as two lone pairs of electrons. A lone pair means a pair of electrons and they repel more than bonding pairs. The two lone-pair electrons remain closer to the oxygen atom and these exert a strong repulsion against the two electrons that are covalently bonded pushing the two hydrogen atoms closer together. In general, a lone pair decreases a bond angle by about 2.5 degrees. The bond angle in a water molecule is 104.5 degrees because it has two bonding pairs and two lone pairs and as a result the shape is called Bent or…

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