The Foundational School of Psychology Essay

805 Words Jan 31st, 2013 4 Pages
Psychology can be defined as the "Scientific study of behavior and mental or cognitive process".
The field seeks scientific interpretation of how the human mind works. Different theorists attempted to describe the human mind by observing behavior, cognitive events, physiological events, social behavior etc.

In the field of psychology, the systematic movements begun during the first quarter of 19th century. These movements were of greatest significance for the development of psychology as a science. These movements have been mainly in the form of "schools". Within psychology, a school is a group of individual who share certain fundamental methodological of theoretical points of view.

The following are some important schools
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James argued that psychologist should be concerned with not only what the mind is made of but also how and why it works as it does, in other words how and why it functions as it does. So he preferred to think of mind or consciousness as a continuous flow and ofter used the phrase
"stream of consciousness". His classic textbook "The principles of psychology" (1890) is still in print. 3.
Psychoanalysis: Studying the unconscious mind
Sigmund Freud (1856 - 1939), the founder of psychoanalysis was an Austrian neurologist.
Psychoanalysis grew, in part, from Freud's attempts to treat patients suffering from physical symptoms, such as paralyzed legs, inability to speak or loss of body controls that had no apparent physical causes. Based on his treatments of patients Freud concluded that the disorder was the result of unconscious conflicts about sex caused by cultural prohibitions against sexual enjoyment. These conflicts were converted into physical symptoms as seen in conversion hysteria. Freud believed that any behavior is influenced by psychological motives, often unconscious one.
He also believed that memories of early childhood experiences were the most important factors in the personality development.
Gestalt Psychology: Studying psychological processes

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