Proteins Essay example

993 Words 4 Pages
Proteins

Proteins are the macromolecules of life. Discovered in 1838, proteins are recognized as a large number of superior organic compounds that make up living organisms and are essential to their functioning. The term protein comes from the Greek word “proteies” or “primary”. Proteins have many different properties and function in a variety of ways.

They can function as a building material, in teeth, bones and muscles, and they can serve as enzymes, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Its functions are the most diverse of any family.

Whether found in humans, animals, plants or in single-celled bacteria, proteins are made of units of 20 different amino acids. Proteins consist of macromolecules called polypeptides, made from
…show more content…
Enzymes can only act on the substrate that they were designed for. This is again because of protein shape. If the substrate molecule's shape matches the enzyme's active site, it undergoes the reaction specified. Enzymes can either break or put together substrates. They can even enhance the rate of reactions to over half-a-million molecules per second.

There are two types of proteins, fibrous and globular. The major fibrous proteins are collagen, keratin, fibrinogen, and muscle proteins. Collagen, which makes up the bones, skin, tendons, and cartilage, is the most abundant protein found in vertebrates.
Keratin, which makes up the outermost layer of skin and the hair, scales, hooves, nails, and feathers of animals, twists into a regularly repeating coil called an alpha helix.
Further more, fibrinogen is the blood plasma protein responsible for blood clotting.
Lastly, myosin is the protein chiefly responsible for muscle contraction, combines with actin, another muscle protein, forming actomyosin, the different filaments of which shorten, causing the contracting action.

Unlike fibrous proteins, globular proteins are spherical and highly soluble. They play a dynamic role in body metabolism. Examples are albumin, globulin, casein, hemoglobin, all of the enzymes, and protein hormones. The albumins and globulins are classes of soluble proteins abundant in animal cells, blood serum, milk, and eggs. Hemoglobin is a respiratory protein that

Related Documents