The human mind and the way humans behave have been primary topics of study amongst historians for many years. Studies have been conducted in different professional areas to gain knowledge and understanding of humans, in an attempt to control behavior. The study of human behavior is known as behavioral psychology or behaviorism. The goal of early behaviorists and functionalists was to bring about a more reliable psychology. The behaviorists believed they would achieve this goal by excluding introspection and focus on the study of behaviorism. This evolution was achieved with help from the zeitgeist, behaviorist, and organizational psychology. This paper will discuss J.R. Angell and his prediction of the shift in psychology from
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286). It is believed Angell based his opinion on the preceding applied psychologists and the zeitgeist. Many psychologists were already moving toward a more applied psychology. Schultz and Schultz (2008) suggest, as psychology continues to grow as a science, the use of consciousness and introspection dwindles (p. 285). A more objective functional psychology was being sought after by applied psychologists. This can be observed by the many individuals who were paving the way for behaviorism, such as, George J. Romanes, Conway L. Morgan, Margaret Floy, Jacques Loeb, Ivan Pavlov and many others. These individuals helped to create the zeitgeist of the 20th century and the move toward the maturing of behaviorism. With such a push to a more objective psychology, Angell could see that consciousness was becoming more and more unacceptable.
What persons or ideas in early behaviorism would carry out the trend that Angell predicted? Many ideas and persons were coming along to offer support to behaviorism. George John Romanes and Conway Lloyd Morgan, were two pioneers in animal psychology. Morgan’s law of parsimony and reliance on experimental techniques impacted a more objective animal psychology (Schultz and Schults, 2008, p. 260). Eight comparative psychology laboratories were created by the year 1910. Jacques Loeb, a German physiologist and zoologist, offered a leap towards a more objectable animal