The Effect of Altered Level of Proteins in the Body on Diseases Proteins are the most structurally sophisticated molecules within the body, each consisting of a unique three-dimensional shape. They make up approximately 50 % of the mass of each cell and consist of functions ranging from enzyme proteases in the stomach such as Trypsin, to hormones, which are transported in the blood such as Adrenaline. Alteration in the structure or level of a protein will be as a result of gene expression. This may result in a number of disorders and diseases, which affect the homeostasis of the body, with the potential of causing lasting
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Glucagon is secreted from the alpha cells and has an opposite effect on blood glucose, acting in response to low levels of blood glucose. It activates glycogen phosphorylase in liver, which promotes glycogenolysis, this causes the break down of glycogen stores from liver and muscle cells. Glucagon acts via a cascade mechanism which activates a protein kinase in response to cyclic AMP. This results in the release of glucose and activation of a lipase enzyme, which liberates fat stores in adipose tissue producing fatty acids and ketone bodies.
A potentially deadly disease caused by alteration in protein levels of Insulin is Diabetes Mellitus. This is caused by altered levels of insulin production, resulting from destruction of beta cells in the pancreas. This may result in either depleted levels of insulin secreted from the pancreas, or the alteration of the structure of insulin preventing recognition at insulin receptors. This disease causes, altered carbohydrate metabolism resulting in an uncontrolled increases in blood glucose concentration. The main physiological effect of this disease is that all cells become starved of glucose as a result of the lack of insulin within the blood.
The liver tries to compensate for this lack of glucose within cells by stimulating glycogenolysis and metabolising glycogen stores, resulting in an