What´s Distillation? Essay

851 Words 4 Pages
Introduction This experiment was done to isolate an organic substance, eugenol found in clove oil of cloves, which is immiscible with water through a new technique called steam distillation. Utilizing the high vapor pressure-low boiling point of water in steam distillation, eugenol with its low vapor pressure-high boiling point is extracted from cloves and checked for its purity content.
Theory
Distillation is the separation of two substances based on differences in boiling points, as in when a certain substances vapor pressure (from here on abbreviated as just VP) reaches and equals to the applied pressure (here, applied pressure is the atmospheric pressure). Steam distillation however specifically requires two immiscible liquids,
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However, since now water is in a mix with eugenol and they both contribute their partial VPs to the total VP, that total VP meets and equals the atmospheric pressure faster and at a slightly lower temperature than water’s usual 100°C.
Results
From an original sample of 5.194g of cloves, 0.076g of eugenol was isolated and tested for purity. Based off the theoretical mass of eugenol that should have been recovered (0.883g), this is simply 8.607% recovery, quite low. All of this information and more can be viewed in Appendix Data Table #1.
Discussion
With the distillation complete, eugenol extracted through organic solvent dichloromethane and then tested, the isolated eugenol’s purity can be validated through both TLC plating as well as 1H NMR spectra analysis. Data Table #2 and Figure #2 in the Appendix display the TLC results when comparing isolated eugenol to its standard. In the spotting visual, only one spot appears on the trail for the isolated eugenol (left), giving some confirmation to eugenol’s purity as otherwise there would have been more than one spot present. And then the Rf values calculated further confirm that spot’s identity as that of eugenol by giving 0.246 to isolated eugenol and a close 0.299 for its standard. However, 1H NMR spectra are also produced for the two as additional support to the eugenol’s purity. Data Table #3 and Figure 3 detail the analysis of the isolated eugenol’s 1H NMR. If looked at closely, it can be observed that all analysis

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