The Yellow Wallpaper Essay

  • The Yellow Wallpaper By Perkins Gilman

    The Yellow Wallpaper The yellow wallpaper is a thrilling story written by Perkins Gilman, Charlotte. The setting depicts the Victorian era when women had no place in the society because the society was dominated by men. Therefore, the women characters like Jennie were trying to rise and discover their place in the society but different obstacles prevented them from realizing their dreams. In this regard, the paper will discuss how Jennie, the narrator needed to have the opportunity to work, to grow

    Words: 1721 - Pages: 7
  • The Yellow Wallpaper vs. Bluebeard

    Stella ENG 4U1 Monday, September 16, 2013 The Prescription to Madness vs. Curiosity Saves the Cat Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s “The Yellow Wallpaper” was published in 1899. This story was based on her own personal experience with severe depression which she underwent a series of unusual treatment for. “The Yellow Wallpaper” is a story about a woman who suffers and has been diagnosed by her husband with “temporary nervous depression” (Gilman, 1). The story of “Bluebeard” written by Charles Perrault

    Words: 997 - Pages: 4
  • Hamlet and the Yellow Wallpaper

    The Nature of Insanity in “The Yellow Wallpaper” and “Hamlet” There are many different events in a person’s life that could lead them to insanity. In Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s “The Yellow Wallpaper” you are dealing with a woman who is a victim of male over-protectiveness and isolation that eventually leads to her insanity. In William Shakespeare’s “Hamlet” you are dealing with a man who has to deal with his father’s death and rejection from the love of his life that eventually leads him

    Words: 1000 - Pages: 4
  • The Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins

    “The Yellow Wallpaper” Analysis The short story “The Yellow wallpaper” is a story about a woman’s descent into insanity. The story begins with the narrator and her husband moving into what seems to be a temporary vacation home. It is obvious in the beginning that the narrator is going through something or suffering through some type of illness. The narrator puts trust in her husband and follows his direct orders, even if they make her unhappy. Unfortunately, things start to go awry as she’s trapped

    Words: 2016 - Pages:
  • The Character of John in The Yellow Wallpaper

    The Character of John in The Yellow Wallpaper       John's fascination with observing his wife can be attributed to a physician's distorted interest in the body. We can certainly speculate that, as physicians at the turn of the century were beginning to explore the female body assisted by "developments" in gynecology, John may have been equally interested in these new techniques of viewing the female body. More so than ever, the patient and her body became subject to the physician's privilege

    Words: 2045 - Pages: 9
  • Analysis of "The Yellow Wallpaper"

    CHARLOTEE PERKINS GILLMAN THE YELLOW WALLPAPER (1892) The cult of true womanhood defined women as “ladies”(pure, diligent). When we talk about American woman, we have to specify their religion, sexual orientation, race, social class (it is therefore essentialist to talk about “women” in general. Depending on the group which they are in, certain coordinates are applicable. The Yellow Wallpaper is about a white, protestant, heterosexual woman at the end of the 19th century in the higher middle

    Words: 2370 - Pages: 10
  • Analysis Of ' The Yellow Wallpaper '

    Gilman fluctuates the ownership of power to a significant extent within ‘The Yellow Wallpaper’. The Gender roles in the narrative of the ‘The Yellow Wallpaper’ conform to stereotypes for the most part as the Male is a rich, high-ranking physician. Although, John appears to be a caring and devoted husband one could argue that he uses his gender and his developed educational history to manipulate and control the young female. However, to some extent this serves as a comparison to the change in dominance

    Words: 1105 - Pages:
  • Feminism And The Yellow Wallpaper

    women is intriguingly played out in Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s short story “The Yellow Wallpaper.” Many of the analyses I’ve read explain how Gilman’s story shows societal pressures affecting women during that time and how they still have an impact on us today. While this popular theory is evident to be true, even by Gilman’s own admission, I would challenge this idea and push to say that while, yes, “The Yellow Wallpaper” does enlighten us to the tragedy of 19th Century gender roles when it comes to

    Words: 1163 - Pages: 5
  • Black Swan/ Yellow Wallpaper

    “Black Swan” - “Yellow Wallpaper” Why can one only lose their self entirely or free oneself by creating an alternate reality in their own mind? If we compare the “Black Swan to the “Yellow Wallpaper,” maybe then we can begin to answer this question. “In the film 'Black Swan', Nina, always a white swan, begins to explore her Shadow (her black swan) for her lead role in 'Swan Lake'. I'm struck by the factors and presences pushing and pulling Nina into

    Words: 673 - Pages: 3
  • The Yellow Wallpaper, By Charlotte Gilman

    such as depression and profound disconnect, in her short story, “The Yellow Wallpaper.” Gilman criticized the patriarchal approach of a woman’s doctor and husband in how they sequestered her to a top floor bedroom where she was forced to rest for days on end dramatically exacerbating her postpartum depression. Due to isolation, the woman became insane. Near the end of the story the woman believes she broke free from the wallpaper and tells her husband, “I’ve got out at last…And I’ve pulled off most

    Words: 1098 - Pages:
  • The Black Wallpaper And The Yellow Wallpaper

    much for some. Both, the narrator of the Yellow wallpaper, and Dave, protagonist of “The Man Who Was Almost a Man”, have to comply with duties that deal with submission to authority, and high expectations of society. Furthermore, In order to deal with their frustrations, the protagonists find symbols that lead to freedom, and use them to acquire their desires. For instance, the narrator of the “Yellow Wallpaper” canalizes her frustrations through the wallpaper that covered the room where she is secluded

    Words: 1551 - Pages:
  • The Yellow Wallpaper By Ray Bradbury

    depends on who has who locked in a cage” In “The Yellow Wallpaper”, the narrator’s trapped mind leads her into a spastic insanity. All in all, it is for the best for her mind and for the revealing truth of her mind’s captors. Her narrator’s choppy plot and decreased focus on subjects highlights her jumping mind, while the characterization of her family enhances the meaninglessness of her main character. The setting itself, specifically, the yellow wallpaper, is portrayed as an antagonist to the narrator’s

    Words: 1018 - Pages:
  • The Yellow Wallpaper By. Perkins Gilman

    vCharlotte Perkins Gilman 's "The Yellow Wallpaper" tells the story of Jane, a woman who suffers from "nervous depression” (113). In "The Yellow Wallpaper," Gilman demonstrates the oppressive social roles expected of Jane, the narrator, such as not having any aspirations other than that of a submissive housewife and mother. First, Jane 's husband and physician, John, has total control of both Jane’s mental and physical reality. The combination of Jane trying to be a submissive wife and her inactivity

    Words: 1063 - Pages:
  • The Yellow Wallpaper and the Swimmer

    characters through imagery and symbolism. In the yellow wallpaper, Charlotte Gilman demonstrates the oppression of women by society while showing the struggle to be set free. Alternatively, John Cheever conveys the ignorance of a man’s downfall through time. However, the yellow paper and the swimmer both show gradual loss of reality as the characters oppress their problems while they strive to fit in with the norms of society. The yellow wallpaper takes the readers on a journey that captures the

    Words: 1336 - Pages: 6
  • The Yellow Wallpaper and Feminism

    shortcomings that history has given them. In Charlotte Perkin Gilman’s short story, “The Yellow Wallpaper,” the dominance of a patriarchal society is exposed. The verisimilitude of Gilman’s imagery of the setting lengthily describes the isolation and confinement of the narrator and their effects on her. The house she is staying in is her own prison, and is a symbol of her isolation from society. Her room with the yellow wallpaper is another representation of the narrator’s oppression and her ambition to break

    Words: 2141 - Pages: 9
  • The Yellow Wallpaper

    short story “The Yellow Wallpaper” traces the mental decline of a woman while undergoing a “rest cure”. This captivating story illustrates the stifling plight of the protagonist in a patriarchal society. Her husband, John, a physician, has taken the narrator, a new mother, to a rented country home for the summer in order for her to recover from postpartum psychosis. He isolates her in an upstairs nursery, a room with barred windows, a nailed down bed, and odious yellow wallpaper, and forbids her

    Words: 2450 - Pages: 10
  • The Yellow Wallpaper By Dr. Mitchell

    In the short story of “The Yellow Wallpaper”, is narrated by an unnamed woman who had moved into a temporary home with her husband. The woman was allegedly suffering from a form of depression and nervousness that was said to last temporarily. Her husband was a physician and prescribed her the treatment of the “rest cure”, advocated by Dr. Weir Mitchell, whom she would have to see if her condition did not better. Dr. Mitchell wrote an essay “The Evolution of the Rest Treatment” that spoke of several

    Words: 1318 - Pages: 6
  • Why The Yellow Wallpaper?

    Why the yellow wallpaper? The story “The Yellow Wallpaper” is about a woman who is driven mad by this yellow wallpaper in what used to be an old nursery. This is no normal nursery however, the windows are barred the bed is chained to the floor and there are what appear to be maybe even shackles on the wall. What is the importance of this yellow wallpaper, and why does this take a woman, who could easily get over her depression, and turn her into an insane women trying to free another woman from

    Words: 1463 - Pages: 6
  • The Yellow Wallpaper

    -+ Crazed Nature: Ecology in THE YELLOW WALL-PAPER Heidi Scott.  The Explicator.  Washington:Spring 2009.  Vol. 67,  Iss. 3,  p. 198-203 (6 pp.) | Abstract (Summary) First the narrator sees only curves in the pattern, but then she finds they "commit suicide" by their motion, and soon she fills the curves with human features-"two bulbous eyes" (6) that have a "vicious influence" (7). [...] far she is resisting her surroundings, pitting herself against its energies and apart from the system

    Words: 2420 - Pages: 10
  • The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins

    popular short story, “The Yellow Wallpaper” written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman is a compelling story of a woman with a mental illness. Every aspect of this story contributes to its success, including the characters and their interactions, the plot, setting, the most apparent symbols, the point of view used, and the overall message of the story. This story is a great representation of mental illness in the time when it was written – misunderstood, and feared. “The Yellow Wallpaper” is about a woman who

    Words: 1102 - Pages: 5
  • The Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Gilman

    In the first story that I read, The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Gilman, the author describes the mental state of the main character by making the reader question why the patient has such a great obsession with the yellow wallpaper in her room. Something about the paper fascinates the patient and causes her to believe things are happening to and around her that are not at all. At one point the patient strangely described, “This bed will not move! I tried to push it until I was lame, and then

    Words: 1265 - Pages:
  • The Sickness Of The Yellow Wallpaper

    Chelsea Helms Lauren Allen English 101-Section 070 11 November 2014 The Sickness of “The Yellow Wallpaper” In Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s “The Yellow Wallpaper”, the main female character is diagnosed with a “nervous condition” and is forced to live in an isolated environment with only her husband and a select few people for the summer. Throughout the story, her husband John, who is also a physician, treats her much like a child because of her supposed illness. During the 1800s, psychology had not

    Words: 1540 - Pages: 7
  • Interpretations of Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper"

    Interpretations of Gilman’s “The Yellow Wallpaper”             “The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman is an example of how stories and the symbolism to which they are related can influence the perspective of its readers and alternate their point of view. In the “Yellow Wall-Paper”, the unknown narrator gets so influenced by her surroundings that she starts showing signs of mental disorder, creating through many years several controversies on trying to find the real causes of her decease

    Words: 1456 - Pages: 6
  • Analysis Of The Book ' The Yellow Wallpaper '

    The Unrest Cure In the short story of “The Yellow Wallpaper”, it is narrated by an unnamed women who had moved into a temporary home with her husband. The woman was allegedly suffering from a form of depression and nervousness that was said to last temporarily. Her husband was a physician and prescribed her the treatment of the “rest cure”, advocated by Dr. Weir Mitchell, whom she would have to see if her condition did not better. Dr. Mitchell wrote an essay “From The Evolution of the Rest Treatment”

    Words: 1323 - Pages: 6
  • The Metamorphosis And The Yellow Wallpaper

    even if it 's bad or good . Two novel that proves that change in life can be a good or bad thing is “The Metamorphosis” and “The Yellow Wallpaper”. Gregor 's physical transformation prompts a metaphorical metamorphosis in his family, who begin to see him as differently based on his physical appearance. Similarly, the Narrator’s fixation with the yellow wallpaper is representative of her internal obsessive nature. In The Metamorphosis the author talk about Gregor going from being a salesman

    Words: 1241 - Pages:
  • Character Analysis Yellow Wallpaper

    English 1002 Rodems February 7, 2011 The Yellow Wallpaper Many people deal with post-traumatic depression and it can have a huge impact on one’s life. In the short story by Charlotte Perkins Gillman, “The Yellow Wallpaper”, the main character, as well as the narrator, is an unnamed woman dealing with post-traumatic depression. The exceptionally imaginative protagonist’s metamorphosis is due to her isolated confinement in a room with “yellow wallpaper” in order for her to recover from depression

    Words: 1155 - Pages: 5
  • Yellow Wallpaper

    The Yellow Wallpaper In Charlotte Perkins Gilman's, "The Yellow Wallpaper," the main character, Jane encounters a mental illness that would take control of her entire life. The progression of Jane's mental illness is demonstrated through the environment and how her surroundings depict her mental state. The house Jane lives in is a physical representation of her mental state. As the story progresses Jane has completely become isolated from her family and the rest of society. Jane is a prisoner in

    Words: 1114 - Pages: 5
  • The Yellow Wallpaper

    Charlotte Perkins Gilman's The Yellow Wallpaper is a short story that deals with many different issues that woman in the 19th century had to deal with on a daily basis. Some of these issues were within their control, but many of them were outside of the realm of control for women. The main point that I will focus on is how restricted societal roles can cause insanity. I will do this by deciphering the meaning of the "yellow wallpaper" and its symbolism. In my opinion, I believe that once

    Words: 1583 - Pages: 7
  • The Yellow Wallpaper

    “The Yellow Wallpaper” For quite a long time before the past century, the female gender had been a race characterized by limited opportunity and the widespread belief of inferiority to the male gender. It was not until the women’s rights movement took off in the 1920’s that women began to enjoy having the same opportunities as men and playing an active role in society. Before that time, women were perceived as being inferior to their male counterparts and received less respect than men. This resulted

    Words: 925 - Pages: 4
  • Caught in the Yellow Wallpaper

    Caught in the Yellow Wallpaper        "The pattern is torturing. You think you have mastered it, but just as you get well underway in following, it turns a back-somersault and there you are. It slaps you in the face, knocks you down, and tramples upon you."   As her madness progresses the narrator in The Yellow Wallpaper becomes increasingly aware of a woman present in the pattern of the wallpaper. She sees this woman struggling against the paper's "bars". Later in her madness she

    Words: 1040 - Pages: 5
  • Lit Analysis of "The Yellow Wallpaper"

    Michelle Feldner English 1302 March 28, 2013 Literary Analysis Essay At first glance, “The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s short story can be confusing to read. You may think you are reading about a woman who is losing her mind, or as the narrators husband says “there is nothing the matter with one but temporary nervous depression”(9), but in all actuality it’s about a woman who is suffering from post partum depression. Even though the plot of this story is based around her

    Words: 663 - Pages: 3
  • The Bars : Feminism And The Yellow Wallpaper

    Between the Bars: Feminism and The Yellow Wallpaper Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s, The Yellow Wallpaper, analyzes the issues that mentally ill women face, the feelings of isolation from your loved ones which leads to disparity. In this time, women with mental illness were not believed to have actual illnesses. For example, “hysteria” is claimed to be a women’s illness, which trivializes the real suffering these women are facing. Perkins displays her case as an extended metaphor for male dominance,

    Words: 1178 - Pages:
  • The Metamorphosis And The Yellow Wallpaper

    Ostracism is a prevalent burden in the lives of many people. Experiencing this kind of isolation can take a toll on one’s sanity and initiate a hefty transformation. The two stories “The Metamorphosis” and “The Yellow Wallpaper” experience many parallels in that they each focus on the effects of the transformations that the protagonists endure. These stories are comparable due to the fact that they focus on social castigation, the effects of ostracism, society’s unattainable standards, the need

    Words: 1245 - Pages:
  • Isolation in “Yellow Wallpaper”

    sleeping with since she killed him. In the short story “Yellow Wallpaper”, the main character Jane was dealing with a slight nervous depression. Her and her husband John rented a small house in the country side in hopes of recovery. Her husband believed the peace and quiet would be good for her. In the house, she is confined to bed rest in a former nursery and is forbidden from working or writing. The spacious, sunlit room has yellow wallpaper with a hideous, chaotic pattern that is stripped in multiple

    Words: 1247 - Pages: 5
  • Analysis Of The Book ' The Yellow Wallpaper '

    “The Yellow Wallpaper” is a perplexing story set in the countryside during the late 19th century, a time when “modern medicine” consisted of often brutal home remedies and doctor’s unproven theories. This was also still a time when women were part of a patriarchal society seen as fragile individuals who were controlled by their emotions and lacked the capacity for complex thought. You see he does not believe I am sick! And what can one do? If a physician of high standing, and one’s own husband

    Words: 1080 - Pages: 5
  • The Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Gilman

    “The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Gilman is a story of a woman with a wild imagination as well as a sufferer of post-partum depression. Her husband Jon takes her to another house, to “get better” from her diagnosis of what he believes is hysteria. While she is there she explains her life through a series of journal entries that discuss the downward spiral of the narrator’s experience during the time she is at this house. Throughout her diary there are examples of symbolism, Jon’s treatment towards

    Words: 1214 - Pages:
  • The Yellow Wallpaper And Story Of An Hour

    very unfairly for many many years but with the help of women like Kate Chopin, and Charlotte Perkins Gilman, america has been forever changed. Both these women were very influential writers and brought hope to women all over the country. “The Yellow Wallpaper” and “Story of an Hour” were two of these authors more popular stories which influenced many peoples beliefs, and changed many peoples views on how women should be treated. In the present age women can own homes, work where they want, and do

    Words: 1234 - Pages:
  • Analysis Of The Movie ' The Yellow Wallpaper '

    "The Yellow Wallpaper" is about a lady made crazy by post pregnancy anxiety and an unsafe treatment. Be that as it may, an examination of the hero 's portrayal uncovers that the story is in a general sense about personality. The hero 's projection of a nonexistent lady — which at first is just her shadow — against the bars of the wallpaper 's example sections her personality, disguising the contention she encounters and in the long run prompting the complete breakdown of the limits of her character

    Words: 1477 - Pages:
  • Analysis Of The Book ' The Yellow Wallpaper '

    Contribution of Oppression To Charlottes Mental Distress Charlotte Perkins Gilman, in the “The Yellow Wallpaper” uses an unusual writing style for her journal-like story; as a result revealing her gradual mental breakdown throughout the story. The excessive usage of “and” and dashes implies withheld information and shows lack of coherency between her sentences and thoughts while the use of exclamation mark shows her nervous excitement. Although, John fails to understand his wife

    Words: 946 - Pages: 4
  • The Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins

    Have you ever felt trapped, isolated, or even like you’re going crazy? If so, then you know what Charlotte Perkins Stetson felt like. Charlotte wrote a story called the yellow wallpaper and this piece of literature or tackles many subjects that would not become civil rights issues until many years later. Charlotte wrote the story based on the experiences that happen in her real life, which adds an eerie feeling while reading this story. It really makes you stop and think about how things used to

    Words: 1239 - Pages:
  • Gilman 's The Yellow Wallpaper

    these views in her writings, both fiction and non-fiction, Gilman’s “The Yellow Wallpaper” acknowledges the power and control of women within patriarchal society, along with the effects on personality due to mental and physical illness. The short story offers a compelling study of Gilman’s own feminism and the roles for women in the 1890’s and 1900’s. First appearing in the New England Magazine in January 1892, "The Yellow Wall-paper," is a work of fiction which brings forth the controversial discussion

    Words: 1319 - Pages: 6
  • “The Yellow Wallpaper”

    “The Yellow Wallpaper” is a very ironic tale filled with a lot of symbolism that is used to portray her own concept of what she believes the institution of marriage is like specifically for women during her time. The entire piece has an extremely eerie and horrific feel to it that only aids in reinforcing what she thinks marriage is like. At first glance of the tale one might think that it is simply a scary story about a psychotic woman who needs to be under constant watch by her husband because

    Words: 1696 - Pages: 7
  • Gilman 's The Yellow Wallpaper

    Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Her Ideal Society In Gilman’s “The Yellow Wallpaper,” published 1892, there is a woman stuck inside musty, revolting yellow wallpaper. This woman is Charlotte Perkins Gilman and every woman who was or is trapped by the standards of their current society. In her time, mental illness in women was likely just a byproduct of their imagination or creativity, and women were constantly viewed as less than men. Gilman 's work has proved relevant through her lifetime until now

    Words: 2217 - Pages:
  • The Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Gilman

    to keep you company is this horrid, yellow wallpaper. Hours feel like days and days feel like weeks, and the only thing there is that yellow wallpaper. You would go crazy! Well, this is what happened to the nameless narrator in The Yellow Wallpaper. The Yellow Wallpaper was written by Charlotte Gilman. The story illustrates the descent into madness many women faced during the 19th century. In The Yellow Wallpaper, author Charlotte Gilman used the yellow wallpaper to symbolize the inability to be expressive

    Words: 1747 - Pages: 7
  • The Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Gilman

    The Yellow Wallpaper Analysis Essay The story “The Yellow Wallpaper,” by Charlotte Gilman, begins with an anonymous female narrator and her husband, John. Her husband is a physician. They rented a beautiful colonial lodge for the summer. The two couples felt lucky that they were able to spend time in the summer living in the beautiful lodge. She finds something extraordinary in the house, which it drives her crazy. The anonymous female’s husband, John, hopes that they can adjust their visions of

    Words: 992 - Pages: 4
  • The Yellow Wallpaper

    Blanche in Relation to The Yellow Wallpaper After having left in silence with the doctor on her arm, she has forever remained in this bittersweet, numbing quietness in comparison to the chaos experienced at Stanley’s house for so long. There is an internal chaos yet to be discovered. She now remains in an estate—much like Belle Reve. She is sitting in a rocking chair. The kind that squeaks ever few seconds upon leaning. She holds a journal on her lap, and a pen rose to her chin. Gazing out of

    Words: 1518 - Pages:
  • The Yellow Wallpaper, By Charlotte Perkin

    Charlotte Perkin’s Gilman’s story, “The Yellow wallpaper”, is a piece of gothic fiction that clarifies the idea of patriarchal dominance over women in society. Gilman, an outspoken feminist herself, expresses the notion of woman’s freedom and their role in the public eye. The “Yellow wallpaper” begins when the narrator and her husband move into a new residence after giving birth to their child. The dilemma between the husband and the narrator is based on dominance, with the husband perceiving the

    Words: 1493 - Pages: 6
  • The Yellow Wallpaper, By Kate Chopin

    their true identity. What exactly does a free, independent woman look like and most importantly, how is she able to achieve that freedom from male supremacy? Even famous feminist authors such as Charlotte Perkins Gilman in her short story “The Yellow Wallpaper” and Kate Chopin in “The Story of an Hour” seem to disagree in how a woman can break free from misogyny. The premise of Gilman’s story is that women fight the system of male privilege through discovering their true self and exercising their self-will

    Words: 1302 - Pages: 6
  • The Lack of Creativity in the Yellow Wallpaper

    and Isolation in “The Yellow Wallpaper” In “The Yellow Wallpaper,” Charlotte Perkins Gilman presents an unnamed woman who gradually spirals into a state of mental psychosis. Gilman sought to bring attention to the unfair treatment of women in the nineteenth century. She uses this story to reveal to the audience that the narrator’s insanity stems from her isolation from society, and her inability to be expressive and creative through writing. Throughout “The Yellow Wallpaper,” the narrator is locked

    Words: 1219 - Pages: 5
  • The Narrator of The Yellow Wallpaper

    The Narrator of The Yellow Wallpaper In “The Yellow Wallpaper” the narrator becomes more depressed throughout the story because of the recommendation of isolation that was made to her. In this short story the narrator is detained in a lonesome, drab room in an attempt to free herself of a nervous disorder. The narrator’s husband, a physician, adheres to this belief and forces his wife into a treatment of solitude. Rather than heal the narrator of her psychological disorder, the treatment only

    Words: 829 - Pages: 4

All The Yellow Wallpaper Essays:

Popular Topics: